How to Build & Deploy Smart Contracts on Archethic?

How to Build & Deploy Smart Contracts on Archethic?

Archethic is a new generation of decentralized and distributed ledger using the concept of TransactionChains to provide fast, scalable and secure network.

Archethic smart contracts are designed to be simple to use by its language, by its concepts and being based on the TransactionChains paradigm.

TransactionChains

Archethic relies on TransactionChain's which reduce to the most atomic form of block: the transaction.
Instead of sharing a block of the transactions with multiple other transactions, a chain is built from a wallet, a service, a smart contract.

Blockchain vs TransactionChains

The scalability and the speed of the transaction validation is then decoupled.

Smart Contract

Archethic leverage smart contract technology embedded into any transactions. In other words, any transaction can be a smart contract.

The smart contracts are interpreted making it easy to understand by the creators, the auditors, and the network.

They rely on 3 main concepts:

  • Triggers: what are the event which will execute some code
  • Conditions: what are the conditions met to execute some code
  • Actions: The code itself to generate a new transaction on the chain.

Apart from those concepts, the smart contract are easy to use thanks to a domain-specific language reducing most of the complexity and upgradable via the TransactionChains.

Let's build something

Nothing is better to explain sometimes than to show.
So, we will code and create a smart contract to demonstrate the capabilities.

For this example, we will build a crowd-sale smart contract for an ICO.

What the contract will do:

  • Accept some cryptocurrency transfers
  • Transfers some token in exchange
  • Close the sales after a certain duration

Conditions

Transactions

We will define some conditions for the smart contract.

condition transaction: [
    uco_transfers: size() > 0,
    timestamp: transaction.timestamp < 1665750161
]

We are defining the condition to accept only incoming transactions with some UCO transfers and before a given UNIX timestamp (the closing date of the ICO)

Inherit

Because Archethic relies on TransactionChains, after an executed code, a new transaction might be generated.
But to achieve that, the creator has to delegate its cryptographic keys to the validators, so we could generate new transactions.

However, to prevent a bad usage of the chain, we have to define some constraints making the transactions behave like expected.

condition inherit: [
   token_transfers: size() == 1
]
Disclaimer: This is just an example, it should not be taken as production ready. To harden it, you would have to check whether the destination address is within the previous transaction inputs (the UCO transfer)

By having those condition, the next transaction โ€“ while being validated โ€“ will ensure its integrity by asserting the conditions defined.

Triggers & Actions

The last remaining part is the definition of the code itself and the triggers.

actions triggered_by: transaction do
   # Get the amount of uco send to this contract
   amount_send = transaction.uco_transfers[contract.address]

   if amount_send > 0 do
      # Convert UCO to the number of tokens to credit. Each UCO worth 10 token
      token_to_credit = amount_send * 10

      # Send the new transaction
      add_token_transfer to: transaction.address, token_address: contract.address, amount: token_to_credit
  end
end

In this snippet, a new incoming transaction would trigger a code which will convert the UCO transferred into a new token transfer, based on the defined rate.

To summarize the contract creation for an ICO fits in the snippet below:

condition inherit: [
   token_transfers: size() == 1
]

condition transaction: [
    uco_transfers: size() > 0,
    timestamp: transaction.timestamp < 1665750161
]

actions triggered_by: transaction do
   # Get the amount of uco send to this contract
   amount_send = transaction.uco_transfers[contract.address]

   if amount_send > 0 do
      # Convert UCO to the number of tokens to credit. Each UCO worth 10 token
      token_to_credit = amount_send * 10

      # Send the new transaction
      add_token_transfer to: transaction.address, token_address: contract.address, amount: token_to_credit
  end
end

Let's test it

Get some funds

To be able to exchange on the network, you need some funds, you can get some funds from the faucet either using the https://mainnet.archethic.net/faucet or a local node (https://github.com/archethic-foundation/archethic-node)

Archethic's faucet

Build the transaction

Archethic have an SDK to build transactions (https://github.com/archethic-foundation/libjs), which provide a page to build transaction (example/transactionBuilder)

Write the code

We are using the transaction builder to forge the transaction, by passing the chain's seed (previously funded), the code mentioned above.

Transaction builder

Mint a token

Moreover, to use an existing token, we will mint a token in the same time.
Just specify the type of transaction as: token and defines it in the content section. (for more details, please refer to the token standard definition: https://archethic-foundation.github.io/archethic-docs/learn/token)

Token definition

Authorized the nodes

Now, as explained before, we have to allow nodes to generate transaction in our behalf. Hence, we have to encrypt the chain's seed to be decrypted only by the nodes, by using the Ownerships section.

Image description

The secret being the seed, the public key being the Storage nonce public key

Contract created

After the transaction generated and sent, we have a new transaction on the chain with the tokens minted and the contract deployed

Image description

Test the interactions

We will go back to the transaction builder and generate a new transaction from another chain (funded as well), and we will send UCO to this smart contract's address (previously created)

We also have to mention the recipient address to say we want to execute code in the smart contract and not only send UCO to it.
Image description

After sending, the chain would have created a new transaction ย by sending the tokens.

Token sent

The sender will have now in possession its token, while the contract would have got the UCO.

Token received

Conclusion

The way to create smart contract on Archethic are quite innovative to allow users to create simple code but powerful by leveraging triggers and bring confidence/security with well-defined conditions.

Apart from this, other really interesting features are supported such as easy upgrade or few triggers (date, interval, oracles, etc.)


Archethic Public Blockchain

Archethic is a Layer 1 aiming to create a new Decentralized Internet.

Its blockchain infrastructure is the most scalable, secure & energy-efficient solution on the market thanks to the implementation of a new consensus: "ARCH".

Archethic smart contracts expand developers' boundaries by introducing internal oracle, time-triggers, editable content & interpreted language.

Through native integration for DeFi, NFTs & decentralized identity; Archethic offers an inclusive and interoperable ecosystem for all blockchains.

To achieve the long-term vision of an autonomous network in the hands of the world population, we developed a biometric device respecting personal data privacy (GDPR-compliant).

Making the blockchain world accessible with the tip of a finger. Be the only key! https://www.archethic.net/

Archethic Foundation Non-profit to manage decentralized governance of the public blockchain


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